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Iranian President Hassan Rouhani called for punishment of those responsible for the downing of Ukrainian International Airlines (UIA) flight PS752, during a speech in Tehran on Tuesday.
He said a special court should be formed with a "high-ranking judge and tens of experts" to conduct a thorough investigation as "all the world will watch".
The first arrests relating to the case were announced on Tuesday.
The shooting down of the Boeing 737-800 plane was described as "unusual" by the Iranian leader. Rouhani also blamed the US for causing the "conditions" that led to a missile being fired.
Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau echoed those comments on Monday, saying that the victims would still be alive if not for a recent escalation of tensions partly triggered by the US.
The plane crashed minutes after take-off from Tehran's Imam Khomeini International Airport, on January 8, killing all 176 passengers and crew on board.
A diplomatic spat ensued as Western leaders blamed Iran for shooting down the plane, which Iran denied at first.
On January 11, Iran's military admitted "unintentionally" shooting down the plane.