The Taliban warned it will avenge the deaths of six militants convicted of terrorism who were hanged in Afghanistan on Sunday.
The extremist group said in a statement that "thousands of mujahideen are ready to take revenge from the enemy."
Presidential palace spokesman Shah Hussain Mortazavi said earlier in the day that the prisoners had carried out attacks on civilians or had been deemed threats to public security.
After a suicide attack in Kabul last month that killed at least 64 people, President Ashraf Ghani vowed that his government would take a harder stance towards insurgents.
However, Ahmad Shuja of Human Rights Watch said: "Executions are not a counterinsurgency policy."
"In flawed justice systems like Afghanistan's, they violate human rights," Shuja added.
According to a list released by the government to dpa, those executed included four Taliban militants, one from the Haqqani network and al-Qaeda member.
The government said that one of the militants had been found guilty of the assassination in September 2011 of Burhanuddin Rabbani, a former Afghan president and chief of the high peace council set up to initiate talks with the Taliban talks.
Mohammad Ismail, the Haqqani network member, was convicted for the suicide bombing in a supermarket in January 2011 that killed eight people.
The Taliban said in an earlier statement that the hangings will not "deter them from their goal, as the fight for over the past 10 years has proven."