TURKEY COUP ATTEMPTE AFTERMATH.jpg
Secular supporters of main opposition Republic Public Party (CHP) shout slogans and hold Turkish flags and pictures of Ataturk, founder of modern Turkey, during a demonstration against coup at Taksim Square, in Istanbul, Turkey, 24 July 2016.
Photograph: EPA/TOLGA BOZOGLU

Hundreds of thousands of people are expected to attend a massive rally in Istanbul on Sunday to protest last month's failed coup attempt by elements of the Turkish military.

Hosted by President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, the "Democracy and Martyrs Rally" will be the largest demonstration since the July 15th coup, which was averted in no small part by citizens who took to the streets to block the rogue soldiers.

It will be attended by the ruling conservative Justice and Development Party (AKP), along with two opposition parties - the right-wing Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) and centre-left Republican People's Party (CHP).

The pro-Kurdish Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), the third largest party in parliament, was not invited, as Erdogan accuses it of ties to the banned Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).

From the onset all parties in parliament opposed the coup, which left at least 260 people dead and prompted the government to announce a state of emergency.

All three opposition parties also voiced concern that they were not consulted about structural reforms for the armed forces, including bringing them under more civilian control.

Some opposition members and rights groups like Amnesty International have also expressed worries about human rights violations and abuses of power in recent weeks.

The Turkish authorities said more than 60,000 government workers have been suspended or fired in the wake of the coup as it purges alleged supporters of Gulen. Some 20,000 teachers have also lost their licenses. 

More than 25,000 people have been detained, over 13,000 of whom have been formally arrested.

The government blames the attempted coup on Fethullah Gulen, a Turkish born Islamic cleric living in self-imposed exile in the United States since 1999. Gulen - who has a large global following which runs schools, businesses and charities - denies the charges.

Erdogan was in an alliance with Gulen for more than a decade, until the two split in recent years.

Critics of Erdogan, many of whom warned about the Gulenist movement for years, say the ruling party helped place followers of the cleric into the state bureaucracy. They then used these position to carry out the coup. Erdogan himself has admitted he was fooled by Gulen.

Turkish officials are demanding Gulen's extradition, but no official request has been filed to the United States. The matter is causing tensions in the relations between Ankara and Washington.

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