Russia operated a state doping programme which benefited athletes at summer and winter Olympics over at least a four year period, World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) said Monday following an investigation.
A report published by a WADA commission in Toronto, Canada will strengthen calls for Russia to be banned from competing at the Rio Games, which begin in less than three weeks.
No explicit recommendations were made in the 103-page report on the investigation led by Canadian law professor Richard McLaren.
Among key findings the report said the Moscow doping laboratory "operated for the protection of doped Russian athletes, within a state-dictated failsafe system" described as "the disappearing positive methodology."
The Sochi laboratory "operated a unique sample swapping methodology to enable doped Russian athletes to compete at the (2014 Winter) Games."