Police in Rotterdam arrested a 32-year-old Frenchman on suspicion of terrorist activity at the request of the French authorities, Dutch prosecutors said on Sunday.
The man is thought to have been involved in planning an attack in France, officials said. He was not identified by the authorities.
Three other suspects were also arrested, including a 43-year-old and a 47-year-old of Algerian background. The third man's identity has not yet been established.
A special anti-terrorist unit detained the men during raids at several flats in western Rotterdam. Nearby properties were evacuated ahead of the operation.
Prosecutors expect to swiftly extradite the key suspect to France.
The French authorities had requested his arrest on Friday.
France has been on high alert since a squad of Islamic State-affiliated terrorists targeted locations across Paris on November 13, killing 130 people.
Reda Kriket, a 34-year-old Frenchman, was arrested in France on Thursday on allegations that he was in the advanced stages of planning a new terrorist attack in Paris.